Gold Fish (Carassius auratus)

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Goldfish can only grow to sexual maturity with enough water and the right nutrition. Most goldfish breed in captivity, particularly in pond settings. Breeding usually happens after a significant temperature change, often in spring. Males chase gravid female goldfish (females carrying eggs), and prompt them to release their eggs by bumping and nudging them.

Goldfish, like all cyprinids, are egg-layers. Their eggs are adhesive and attach to aquatic vegetation, typically dense plants such as Cabomba or Elodea or a spawning mop. The eggs hatch within 48 to 72 hours.

Within a week or so, the fry begins to assume its final shape, although a year may pass before they develop a mature goldfish color; until then they are a metallic brown like their wild ancestors. In their first weeks of life, the fry grow quickly—an adaptation born of the high risk of getting devoured by the adult goldfish (or other fish and insects) in their environment.

Some highly selectively bred goldfish can no longer breed naturally due to their altered shape. The artificial breeding method called “hand stripping” can assist nature, but can harm the fish if not done correctly. In captivity, adults may also eat young that they encounter.

Breeding goldfish by the hobbyist is the process of selecting adult fish to reproduce, allowing them to reproduce and then raising the resulting offspring while continually removing fish that do not approach the desired pedigree.

Respiration

Goldfish are able to survive short periods of entirely anoxic conditions. Survival is shorter under higher temperatures, suggesting that this is a cold weather adaptation. Researchers speculate that this is specifically an adaptation to survival in frozen water bodies over winter.

Energy is obtained from liver glycogen. This process depends upon a pyruvate decarboxylase – the first known in vertebrates

Description

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The goldfish (Carassius auratus) is a freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae of order Cypriniformes. It is commonly kept as a pet in indoor aquariums, and is one of the most popular aquarium fish. Goldfish released into the wild have become an invasive pest in parts of North America.Native to East Asia, the goldfish is a relatively small member of the carp family (which also includes the Prussian carp and the crucian carp). It was first selectively bred for color in imperial China more than 1,000 years ago, and several distinct breeds have since been developed. Goldfish breeds vary greatly in size, body shape, fin configuration, and coloration (various combinations of white, yellow, orange, red, brown, and black are known).

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Single-tailed varieties

Single tailed varieties have a single caudal fin and anal fin. They have long, streamlined bodies and are faster swimming than shorter egg-shaped goldfishes. They all come from common goldfish, but rare egg-shaped varieties like nymph goldfish are developed from egg-shaped goldfish. They have no telescopic eyes, celestial eyes, nor bubble eyes. They have no headgrowths like orandas, lionheads, and ranchus, narial bouquets like pompoms, or curled gills like curled-gill.

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Long-bodied

  • Common goldfish – It is the most common type of goldfish, hence the name. All varieties of goldfish are developed from this variety. It is the direct descendant of the Prussian carps. It is also known as a feeder fish or feeder goldfish. Common goldfish come in a variety of colors including red, orange, blueish-grey, brown, yellow, white, and black. The most common variation is a shiny-orange, with the second most-common variation being a mix of white and red and orange and white. Although the color black is uncommon, yellow and black/white color pattern(trademarked as ‘pandas’) are rare. GoldFish for sale online

Common goldfish.JPG

  • Comet goldfish – This is the most common goldfish variety in the United States. It is similar to the common goldfish, except for having a long, deeply-forked tail, and the rest of its fins are long. It was developed in the United States from the common goldfish stock.

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Shubunkin – It is a hardy, single-tailed goldfish with nacreous scales and a pattern known as calico. GoldFish for sale online

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    • London Shubunkins – It has a stout body and short, rounded finnage that is similar to the common goldfish.
    • American Shubunkins – It has a slimmer body shape than the London Shubunkin with deeply forked, pointed tail fins and longer finnage all around. Its appearance is similar to the comet goldfish.
    • Bristol Shubunkins – It is a slim-bodied goldfish with well-developed finnage, possessing a tail that is large, moderately forked, and rounded at the end. It has a large heart-shaped tail.

Egg-shaped bodied[edit]

  • Nymph goldfish – It is similar to the fantail, except they have a single caudal fin and anal fin. Considered a bi-product of breeding process due to recessive genes handed down from fantail or veiltail parents.
  • Tamasaba goldfish (or Sabao goldfish) – It is similar to the ryukin, except they have a single caudal fin and anal fin. A rare type of fish mutated from the ryukins. It is developed from the ryukin.

Double-tailed varieties[edit]

Double-tailed or “fancy” goldfish. Fancy, in goldfish, meaning they have double caudal fins and anal fins. They are the most popular and the most expensive types of goldfish. There are two types of fancy goldfish:

Streamlined bodied

  • Wakin goldfish – It is similar to the common goldfish, except it has double caudal fins and anal fins. All fancy goldfish are developed from this variety. The wakin was developed from the common goldfish.
  • Watonai goldfish – It is similar to the comet goldfish, except it has double caudal fins and anal fins. The watonai was developed both from the wakin and ryukin goldfish.
  • Jikin goldfish – A fancy goldfish variety that has its double caudal fins splay outwards. Jikin goldfish have strictly 2 colors(red and white) and perfect individuals display a unique pattern called the ’12 points of red’. It is like a wakin but caudal fins are spread apart. The jikin is developed from the wakin.

Egg-shaped bodied

Egg-shaped goldfish is the most popular type of goldfish, they have two types:

Dorsal finned varieties

Orange-white Ryukin goldfish

  • Fantail goldfish – It is the western form of the ryukin and possesses an egg-shaped body, a high dorsal fin, double caudal and anal fins, and no shoulder hump.

Fan tailed goldfish.jpg

  • Veiltail goldfish – It is similar to the fantail goldfish, except that they have longer fins. They have long tails and fins which resemble a veil and cause them to be slow-moving. They are prone to fin nipping because many other fish are attracted to their long flowing fins. Veiltail is the long-tailed version of the fantail goldfish.

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  • Ryukin goldfish – It has a short, deep body with a characteristic shoulder hump. It is similar to the fantail goldfish, except with a shoulder hump. Its name is derived from the Ryukyu islands, where they have been bred. Since they have a larger hump, you need an aquarium that is taller than most fancy goldfishes require.

Goldfish Ryukin.jpg

  • Pearlscale goldfish – It is a spherical-bodied goldfish with finnage similar to the fantail goldfish. It has a shorter and rounder body compared to other goldfish. Due to the sphere-shaped body, they are very susceptible to constipation. You will need to soak the flakes or pellets first under water for a few minutes in order to remove the air from the food before feeding it to the pearlscales. They have whitish pearl-like raised scales which they look attractive to many people. When their scales fall off, they will grow only into regular scales. They should not be kept in an aquarium with rough objects that can cause their scales to fall off.

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  • Telescope goldfish – It is similar to the fantails, except that it has protruding eyes. It has zoomed, thus limited, vision and should not be kept in an aquarium with rough objects that can harm or even can cause blindness to their protruding eyes. Usually, black telescopes are referred to as black moors and many peoples differentiate them from telescope goldfish; black moors have a velvety black or black matte body and broader, longer and more deeply forked tails, while telescopes do not come in black. Some people say that the black moor is a separate variety of goldfish, but this is wrong. In addition, black moors are not called black moors, instead, they are called black telescopes because black moors are only different in color. Most bred telescope goldfish have a dorsal fin but some don’t have.
  • Demekin goldfish – It is similar to the telescope goldfish, except that it has short, deep body with a characteristic shoulder hump like the ryukin goldfish. Since they have a larger hump, you need an aquarium that is taller than most fancy goldfishes require.

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  • Oranda goldfish – It is characterized by a prominent raspberry-like hood (also known as wen or head growth) that encases the whole head except for the eyes and mouth. It is similar to the fantail goldfish, except it has a head growth. Orandas should not be kept in an aquarium with rough objects that can harm their head growths, which can cause infection.

OrangeOranda.jpg

  • Curled-gill goldfish – It is any goldfish type with curled-gills or with gills that are turned outwards. It is an uncommon variety of fancy goldfish that has been developed by specialist enthusiasts. It owes its name from the out-turned appearance of its gill covers.

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  • Tosakin goldfish – It is the only fancy goldfish type that has undivided double tail fins that curls their tails at the ends. It is a very distinctive breed of goldfish with a large tail fin that spreads out horizontally (like a fan) behind the fish. Though technically a divided tail, the two halves are attached at the center/middle forming a single fin.

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  • Butterfly tail – It is any fancy goldfish that is distinguished by the butterfly-shaped caudal fins when viewed from above.

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  • Meteor goldfish – A tailess breed with a well-developed anal fin. It is a competent swimmer despite its lack of a tail.

MeteorGoldfish.jpg

Dorsal finless varieties[edit]

Bubble eye goldfish

Eggfish goldfish – It is similar to the fantail except that it has no dorsal fin. It is developed from the fantail goldfish. GoldFish for sale online

Eggfish.jpg

  • Phoenix goldfish – It is similar to the eggfish, except that they have longer fins. It is developed from the eggfish goldfish. They have long tails and fins which resemble a veil and cause them to be slow-moving. They are prone to fin nipping because many other fish are attracted to their long flowing fins. Phoenix is the long-tailed version of the eggfish goldfish. It is the veiltail equivalent of the dorsal finless goldfish.
  • Izumo Nankin goldfish – It is similar to the ryukin goldfish, except it has no dorsal fin. It has a short, deep body with a characteristic shoulder hump. It is similar to the eggfish goldfish, except with a shoulder hump. Since they have a larger hump, you need an aquarium that is taller than most fancy goldfishes require.
  • Pompom goldfish – It is similar to the eggfish goldfish, except it has larger nasal septa. They are called “pompoms” resembling the cheerleader’s pompom balls. It is developed from the eggfish goldfish, though there are pompom goldfishes that have a dorsal fin.

Chocolate Oranda with Red pompoms 2.jpg

  • Lionhead goldfish – It is similar to the eggfish goldfish, except that it has a head growth or similar to oranda goldfish except that it has no dorsal fin. It has a soft, spongy head growth and should not be kept in an aquarium with rough objects that can harm its head growth, which may cause infection. It is developed from the eggfish goldfish.

LionheadGoldfishSideviewRodsan18b.jpg

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  • Ranchu goldfish – Compared to lionheads, ranchus have a more downturned tail and tail fin. Although similar to lionheads, ranchus have more-arched backs and have much shorter tails that are tucked-in at a 45-degree angle.
  • Celestial eye goldfish – This goldfish has double tails and a breed-defining pair of upturned, telescope eyes with pupils gazing skyward.

Celestial eye goldfish.jpg

Many people call it “stargazers” or “sky-gazers” because their eyeballs are turned permanently upwards. Due to its upturned eyes, they should not be kept in the aquarium that has rough objects that can harm or hurt their eyes, or even cause blindness. It is developed from the dorsal-less telescope eye goldfish. Some celestial eye goldfish have a dorsal fin.

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  • Bubble eye goldfish – The small, fancy bubble eye has its eyes accompanied by two large fluid-filled sacs. The sacs are fragile and easily ruptured. When their bubble-like fluid-filled sacs or bladders are ruptured, they will grow back again, but not immediately, and can also lead to infection. The ruptured sac is not the same in size as the other one and it would become asymmetrical. Due to its fluid-filled sacs, they should not be kept in the aquarium that has rough objects that can rupture their sacs which may cause infection. Bubble eye goldfish might have a dorsal fin but most bred bubble eyes don’t have. It is developed from the eggfish goldfish.

Bubble Eye goldfish.jpg

  • tricolor bubble eyes goldfish – The mutation of Ryukin has led to the emergence of red bubble eyes goldfish, and the mutation of red bubble eyes goldfish has led to the emergence of tricolor bubble eyes goldfish. This tricolor bubble eyes goldfish was used in the mating process of goldfish species such as eastern goldfish, vermilion goldfish, and kirico goldfish.

Tricolor bubble eyes goldfish.jpg

Size:

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When kept in small indoor aquariums, goldfish tend to stay about 1 inch (2.5 cm) to 2 inches (5.1 cm) long. Goldfish may grow larger if moved to bigger fish tanks, but they usually do not grow longer than 6 inches (15 cm). In outdoor ponds, and in the wild, goldfish can grow to about 14 inches (36 cm).

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As of April 2008, the largest goldfish in the world was believed by the BBC to measure 19 inches (48 cm), in the Netherlands.[18] At the time, a goldfish named “Goldie”, kept as a pet in a tank in Folkestone, England, was measured as 15 inches (38 cm) and over 2 pounds (0.91 kg), and named as the second largest in the world behind the Netherlands fish.[18] The secretary of the Federation of British Aquatic Societies (FBAS) stated of Goldie’s size, “I would think there are probably a few bigger goldfish that people don’t think of as record holders, perhaps in ornamental lakes”.[18] In July 2010, a goldfish measuring 16 inches (41 cm) and 5 pounds (2.3 kg) was caught in a pond in Poole, England, thought to have been abandoned there after outgrowing a tank.[19] On November 16, 2020, a 15 inch (38.1 cm) 9 pound (4.1 kg) goldfish was found in a 16-acre (6.5 ha) lake in Greenville, South Carolina, while conducting a population survey of Oak Grove Lake.

Vision:

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Goldfish have one of the most studied senses of vision in fishes.[21] Goldfish have four kinds of cone cells, which are respectively sensitive to different colors: red, green, blue and ultraviolet. The ability to distinguish between four different primary colors classifies them as tetrachromats.

Hearing

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Goldfish have one of the most studied senses of hearing in fish.[23] They have two otoliths, permitting the detection of sound particle motion, and Weberian ossicles connecting the swimbladder to the otoliths, facilitating the detection of sound pressure.

Goldfish are gregarious, displaying schooling behavior, as well as displaying the same types of feeding behaviors. Goldfish may display similar behaviors when responding to their reflections in a mirror.

Behavior

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Goldfish have learned behaviors, both as groups and as individuals, that stem from native carp behavior. They are a generalist species with varied feeding, breeding, and predator avoidance behaviors that contribute to their success. As fish, they can be described as “friendly” towards each other. Very rarely does a goldfish harm another goldfish, nor do the males harm the females during breeding. The only real threat that goldfish present to each other is competing for food. Commonscomets, and other faster varieties can easily eat all the food during a feeding before fancy varieties can reach it. This can lead to stunted growth or possible starvation of fancier varieties when they are kept in a pond with their single-tailed brethren. As a result, care should be taken to combine only breeds with similar body type and swim characteristics.

Cognitive abilities

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Goldfish have strong associative learning abilities, as well as social learning skills. In addition, their visual acuity allows them to distinguish between individual humans. Owners may notice that fish react favorably to them (swimming to the front of the glass, swimming rapidly around the tank, and going to the surface mouthing for food) while hiding when other people approach the tank. Over time, goldfish learn to associate their owners and other humans with food, often “begging” for food whenever their owners approach.

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Goldfish that have constant visual contact with humans also stop considering them to be a threat. After being kept in a tank for several weeks, sometimes months, it becomes possible to feed a goldfish by hand without it shying away.

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Goldfish have a memory-span of at least three months and can distinguish between different shapes, colors, and sounds. By using positive reinforcement, goldfish can be trained to recognize and to react to light signals of different colors or to perform tricks. Fish respond to certain colors most evidently in relation to feeding. Fish learn to anticipate feedings provided they occur at around the same time every day.

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